Friday, August 21, 2020

Embellishing Sentences

Ho ho.... no

A lot of people ask me, hey Eric, what's a noun clause?
Clause: combination of words that must contain a subject and verb.

Often it is a dependent clause.

Can be used with conjunctions:

(that) which who whom
whose that if whether
when where how why
who/m when what where which-ever

Only some of these can be both conjunction that starts the clause and the subject. 
Subject: which - who - what

In the interest of further your pop culture references, let's play a Celebrity Guessing Game!

noun clause has 4 uses 
(subject - verb - compliment/conjunction - object)
as the subject of sentence

What she wore to the party really turned some heads.

Whoever wants to know should ask me.

(you) please ask mom what we are having for dinner.

Do you know if she is coming?

Steve isn't what is general considered the most ethical.

using object + preposition

Sarah should not be held responsible for what her brother does.

It's more of a question of whom she said it to than why she said it.

That she might be right is what frightens me.

Noun Clauses are everywhere in Movies, TV shows, and Music!

Try to Find the Noun Clause in Kelly Clarkson's Stronger...

What doesn't kill you makes you stronger Stand a little taller Doesn't mean I'm lonely when I'm alone What doesn't kill you makes a fighter Footsteps even lighter Doesn't mean I'm over cause you're gone

A lot of people ask me, hey Eric, what about a noun phrase?
 phrase is a collection of words that may have nouns or verbals, but it does not have a subject doing a verb.

We sometimes add information about a person or thing referred to in one noun phrase by talking about the same person or thing in a different way in a following noun phrase:

-  A hooded cobra, one of the world's most dangerous snakes, has escaped from Dudley Zoo.

-  Dr. Alex Parr, director of the State Museum, is to become the government's art advisor.

In writing, the items are usually separated by a comma. And I'm not talking about Culture Club...

In speech the items are usually separated by a pause or other intonation break. Afterall, we don't want to be sounding like John Moschitta...

However when a second action acts like a defining relative clause, when it is usually a name, there is usually no punctuation in writing or intonation break in speech.

-  My friend Mia has moved to Sweden. (rather than... My friend, Mia, has moved to Sweden)

-  The current champion is expected to survive her first-round match with the Italian Silvia Farina. (rather than... The current champion is expected to survive her first-round match with the Italian, Silvia Farina.)

We can add information to a noun phrase with a conjunction such as and or or:

-  Kurt Svensson, her teacher and well known concert pianist, thinks that she is a great talent.
( = her teacher is also a well-known pianist)

-  Phonetics or the study of speech sounds is a common component on courses in teaching English as a foreign language.

The adverb namely and the phrase that is are used to add details about a noun phrase:

-  This side effect of the treatment, namely weight gain, is counteracted with other drugs.

-  The main cause of global warming, that is the burning of fossil fuels, is to be the focus of negotiations at the international conference.

We can also add information to a noun phrase using a participle clause beginning with an -ing, -ed, or being + ing verb form. These are often similar to defining relative clauses.

SIDE NOTE: defining vs. non-defining:

The Canadian people who come from Alberta sure do say 'eh' and 'sorry' a lot.

The Canadian people, who come from Alberta, sure do say 'eh' and 'sorry' a lot. 

-  The people living next door come from Italy. (or the people who are living next door...)

-  The weapon used in the murder has now been found. (or the weapon that has been used...)

The prisoners being released being released are all women (or the prisoners who are being released...)

Note that -ing participle clauses correspond to defining relative clauses with an active verb, while -ed and being + -ed clauses correspond to defining relative clauses with a passive verb.

SIDE NOTE: active vs. passive:
subject does the verbing, object gets verbed.

ex. The dog chases the cat.

-  We also use a to-infinitive clause, as in:

-  Have you brought a book to read?

-  My decision to resign from the company was made after a great deal of thought.

- I thought that the management's offer, to increase staff holidays, was a good one.

In written English, often in newspapers, -ing and -ed clauses are also used instead of non-defining relative clauses. These are usually written between commas or dashes (-)

- The men, wearing anoraks and hats, made off with the Volvo.

So who stole the car?

Probably not these folks...

ASSIGNMENT: rewrite the sentences in this sentence combining exercise with some of what you've learned.