Informal- used before any noun to show that it isn't important what the exact name is:
• Some kid threw a rock at me.
• We're watching some movie that my husband wants to watch.
Formal- used before plural numbers to show that they are not exact:
• Some 2,000 people were killed in the attack.
• Some terrorist attacked the State House.
Review exercise 48.4
No, none of, not any, nothing, etc.
No, none of, etc is used for emphasis in negative sentences:
• There isn't any food.
• There's no food!
• There isn't anyone to help me.
• There's no one to help me!
Used at the beginning of a clause instead of any, anything etc.
• No help could be found. (not "Not any help could be found")
Used right after and, but, or that instead of any, anything etc.
• We checked the office, and no one was there. (not "and not anyone was there")
• It seems to me that nothing can be done.
• I liked the dinner but nobody else did.
Used in the beginning of a sentence or after and, but, or that in more
• Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse. (no animals were moving)
• He slammed the breaks and not a moment too soon. (just in time)
Complete Exercise 49.1
We sometimes use all after the noun it refers to:
• Americans all talk too loud.
• We all think your new boyfriend is rude.
We usually put all after the verb be or after the first helping verb if
there is one
• They are all going on vacation.
• We could all meet up after class.
For negatives use not all of
• Not all of the students handed in their homework. (some students did not
hand in their homework)
Complete Exercise 51.1
Program Director: Take 2, cue Howard.
Beale: I don't have to tell you things are bad. Everybody knows things are bad. It's a depression. Everybody's out of work or scared of losing their job. The dollar buys a nickel's worth; banks are going bust; shopkeepers keep a gun under the counter; punks are running wild in the street, and there's nobody anywhere who seems to know what to do, and there's no end to it.
We know the air is unfit to breathe and our food is unfit to eat. And we sit watching our TVs while some local newscaster tells us that today we had fifteen homicides and sixty-three violent crimes, as if that's the way it's supposed to be!
We all know things are bad -- worse than bad -- they're crazy.
It's like everything everywhere is going crazy, so we don't go out any more. We sit in the house, and slowly the world we're living in is getting smaller, and all we say is, "Please, at least leave us alone in our living rooms. Let me have my toaster and my TV and my steel-belted radials, and I won't say anything. Just leave us alone."
Well, I'm not going to leave you alone.
I want you to get mad!
I don't want you to protest. I don't want you to riot. I don't want you to write to your Congressman, because I wouldn't know what to tell you to write. I don't know what to do about the depression and the inflation and the Russians and the crime in the street.
All I know is that first, you've got to get mad.
You've gotta say, "I'm a human being, goddammit! My life has value!"
So, I want you to get up now. I want all of you to get up out of your chairs. I want you to get up right now and go to the window, open it, and stick your head out and yell,
"I'm as mad as hell,
and I'm not going to take this anymore!!"
All and whole
Before singular nouns we usually use the whole, not all the
• He slept through the whole lesson.
• The whole city is out of Clorox wipes.
• HOWEVER we can say all day, all weekend, all month, all summer
Before plural nouns we can use all of or the whole, but the
meaning is different
• All of the states shut down because of the virus. (every state shut down)
• Whole states are still shut down because of the virus. (not every state is
shut down, but some states shut down completely)
Complete Exercise 51.2
public speaking and cadence
fast slow up down